AS Narvacity Elektrijaamad

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History

 
 

◊ First Years of Power Generation Industry Development

◊ Balti Power Plant

◊ Eesti Power Plant

◊ Historical Milestones – Estonian Oil Shale Utilization as Energy Feedstock


 
Construction of the Balti Power Plant, 22.03.1958

First Years of Power Generation Industry Development

First plants intended for public and industrial power supply were built in the territory of Estonia in the late 19th – early 20th century. As a result, rapid development of the power generation industry began in big cities and industrial centres such as Tallinn, Tartu, Narva, Pärnu and Kunda.

Before the October Revolution of 1917, the development of the power generation industry in Narva was linked to such manufacturing enterprises as the Krenholm Textile Mill, Flax Spinning Mill and Woolen Mill. Those mills utilised the power of the Narva waterfalls generated by means of waterwheels and huge transmissions whereas room lighting was provided by gas. It was in 1898–1900, when a steam power plant with four 110V direct current generators was constructed, that application of electric power, mostly for room lighting, began. The application of electric power grew wider after 1912 following installation of a 525 hp hydraulic turbine with a direct current generator. Electric power supply to the population of Narva started as early as in 1918 when the hospital building and houses of the most influential officials were connected to the electricity grid of the Woolen Mill. Expansion of Narva electricity distribution networks, which were subordinate to the local municipality at that time, started after 1920 on the premises of the industrial power plants.


 
Construction of the Balti Power Plant, 11.11.1958

Balti Power Plant

The Balti power plant is one of the largest oil shale-fired power plants in the world.

The plant was built in 1959–1965. It is located in north-eastern Estonia, 5 km far from Narva, and is currently operating within the framework of the united energy system of the Baltic States.

The construction of the electric power plant was carried out in four stages. In the course of the first, second and third stage, 18 boiler units of 53 kg/s in output, eight 100 MW turbine units and two 12 MW back-pressure turbines meeting the demand of Narva enterprises for steam were installed. The fourth stage of the power plant comprises four units housing 78 kg/s boilers and 200 MW turbine units each.


Key Milestones in the History of the Balti Power Plant:

March 1956 Construction commencement
March 1959 Equipment installation commencement
30.12.1959 Boiler № 1 and Turbine № 1 were put into operation
1962 Commencement of oil shale ash sales to customers
31.12.1963 Boiler No. 19 and Turbine No. 9 were put into operation
22.12.1966 Boiler No. 26 was put into operation
1966 Beginning of steam and heat supply to industrial consumers of Narva

The power plant is the sole source of thermal power for the district heating system supplying 74 thousand residents of Narva with heat. It also supplies all the local industrial enterprises with process steam. The Balti power plant was designed by Leningrad Department of Teploenergoproekt Institute. The construction works were undertaken both by the Baltic State Power Plant Construction Department subordinate to the Sevenergostroi group of construction companies controlled by the USSR Ministry of Energy and Electrification and relevant subcontractors.


 
Construction of the Balti Power Plant, 06.10.1960




A. Alas, Balti Power Plant

Eesti Power Plant

The Eesti power plant, fired with locally mined high ash and sulphur content oil shale of low heating value, is located in the neighbourhood of Narva in north-eastern Estonia. The plant is the world largest oil shale-fired power plant.

Site preparation for the construction of the Eesti power plant began in July 1963. The first unit of the plant, of 200 MW in capacity, was commissioned in 1969, and in 1973 the plant attained its design capacity of 1 610 MW. Design features of the basic and auxiliary equipment are conditioned by special characteristics of the local oil shale.


Basic Milestones in the History of the Eesti Power Plant:

March 1963 Adoption of a corresponding Governmental Resolution and commencement of the new power plant construction site preparation
1964 Geological investigation, wood-cutting and the construction site preparation
November 1964 Commencement of construction works on the site
February 1965 Excavation of the first cubic meter of soil at the construction site of the main building
June 1966 Erection of the first 31.5 meter high pillar of the main building followed with the first 55.5 meter high first pillar of the boiler section.
30.06.1969 Commissioning of the first power generating unit (200 MW) with a new design boiler TP-101 developed by the Taganrog Boiler Plant.
28.07.1973 Commissioning of the last (eighth) power generating unit of 210 MW in capacity. The Eesti power plant attained its design capacity of 1 610 MW.
1977 Commissioning of a unit for dry ash collection and subsequent shipment to customers.
1980 Commissioning of solid heat carrier units UTT 3000 for thermal processing of oil shale into shale oil.
1980–1982 Reconstruction of the 8B boiler for combustion of the shale oil and gas from UTT 3000
1982–1988 Operational test of the 8B boiler fuelled with shale oil.
October 1998 Pursuant to a company directive issued by AS Estonia Energia, the 8B boiler was taken out of operation beginning from 01.11.98
1998–2001 Dismantling of 8B and 8А boilers along with the auxiliary boiler and turbine equipment; reconstruction of the low-pressure cylinder of turbines No. 5 and 6 involving replacement of the low-pressure rotor; introduction of an electronic control system for power generating Unit 5.
1999–2002 Establishment of AS Narvacity Elektrijaamad, the oil plant, the fuel plant, the ash handling plant
August 2000 – February 2002 Renovation of the chemical water treatment facility for conditioning of boiler and heat supply make-up water
October 2001
Commencement of renovation of power generating Unit 8 with CFB Foster Wheeler boilers
September – December 2003 Trial firings of renovated power generating Unit 8

 
Launching the Construction of the Eesti Power Plant




Construction of the Eesti Power Plant




Erection of Equipment at the Eesti Power Plant




Construction of the Eesti Power Plant




Tne Unit No. 6 of the Eesti Power Plant

Historical Milestones – Estonian Oil Shale Utilization as Energy Feedstock

Oil shale holds a special position among the mineral resources of Estonia. Oil shale is a black or brown brittle layered sedimentary rock consisting of not only semi-decomposed organic matters but also of various inorganic substances. The organic matters mainly comprise algae and bacteria fossils. Oil shale is a fairly soft and nonabrasive rock that can be mistaken for grapholite at first sight. Oil shale is a low heating value fuel of high non-combustible mineral matter content, i.e. with high ash specific gravity. Completely dry oil shale is usually white-brownish, and its thin layers can easily be set ablaze with a match giving the name to the rock for its Estonian name, põlevkivi, is translated as ”combustible stone”.

1725 The first written reference to shepherds using oil shale for starting up a fire.
1789–1910 Many scientists considered oil shale application as a fuel.
1916 First field pulverised oil shale combustion tests were carried out at the Asserin Portland cement factory and the Port-Kunda cement factory.
July 1918 Application of oil shale as a fuel both in various industries and in household (within the mining area).
1922 80 ths tons of oil shale were used at the Asserin Portland cement factory and Port-Kunda cement factory as a fuel for Portland cement burning and for generation of 34 ths tons of steam.
1924 Beginning of oil shale power generation. The Tallinn thermal power plant was switched over to oil shale combustion.
1939 The Tallinn thermal power plant attained the capacity of 22 MW. The largest steam generator of the plant had an inclined bed-by-bed combustion furnace with a throughput rate of 35 t/h.
1948–1951 Introduction of pulverised oil shale combustion in boilers of the Kohtla-Järve and Ahtme power plants of 50 and 72 MW respectively. The boilers had been manufactured at the Barnaul boiler factory; their rated capacity was 75 t/h.
1959–1960 New turbine-generators of 100 MW were put into operation at the Baltic power plant followed with installation of power generating units of 200 MW.
1965 Having applied steam generators of the Taganrog boiler factory, the Baltic power plant attained the capacity of 1 600 MW. Oil shale consumption had increased up to 10 – 12 tons/year.
July 1963 Site preparation for construction of the Eesti power plant.
November 1964 First constructors arrived to the site for construction of the Eesti power plant.
February 1965 Excavation of the first cubic meter of soil at the construction site of the main building.
June 1966 Erection of the first 31.5 meter high pillar of the main building followed with the first 55.5 meter high first pillar of the boiler section.
30.06.1969 Commissioning of the first power generating unit (200 MW) with a new design boiler TP-101 developed by the Taganrog Boiler Plant.
28.07.1973 Commissioning of the last (eighth) power generating unit of 210 MW in capacity. The Eesti power plant attained its design capacity of 1 610 MW.
 
Oil Shale Mining in Estonia at the Beginning of the 20-ies of the Last Century




Oil Shale Mining in Estonia at the Beginning of the 20-ies of the Last Century
 
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